Thursday, May 21, 2020

Economics and Comparitive Advantage in Switzerland

RUNNING HEAD: SWITZERLAND AND COMPARITIVE Switzerland and Comparative Advantage; Factors, Specialization and Protectionism in a Global Economy ECO GM/ 561 International Economics Douglas Gurney July 3, 2010 Switzerland and the Concept of Comparative Advantage While most in today’s hyper-competitive global economy look towards countries including; China, India, Taiwan, Vietnam, and others in search of lower production costs seeking the ever illusive comparative advantage, others have different ideas. Switzerland, a tiny land locked nation in central Europe surrounded by Alps with a relatively small population of 7,630,605 is one such country. It operates with its own comparative advantage in the industries of†¦show more content†¦As Switzerland is unable to compete globally in the area of inexpensive goods and services including; toys, manufactured goods, and other products used in mass by today’s consumer it is advised that the nation continue to produce products it currently specializes in along with expanding its current services to attract foreign investment into the Swiss economy. Industries of Specialization and Opportunity As most already know, the Swiss are renowned for their production of high quality chocolates including those of the Toblerone and Lindt brands. â€Å"Switzerland has a comparative advantage in the production of chocolate. By spending one hour producing two pounds of chocolate, it gives up producing one pound of cheese, whereas, if it spends that hour producing cheese, it gives up two pounds of chocolate. Thus, the good in which comparative advantage is held is the good that the country produces most efficiently (chocolate). Therefore, if given a choice between producing two goods (or services), a country will make the most efficient use of its resources by producing the good with the lowest opportunity cost, the good in which it holds the comparative advantage, and by trading for the other good.† (, 2010) While chocolates are one of this country’s specialties it’s not the only one. Other areas of specialty already realized and being readily ut ilized by the Swiss are the

Monday, May 18, 2020

Limiting Reactant Theoretical Yield (Worked Problem)

The limiting reactant of a reaction is the reactant that would run out first if all the reactants were to be reacted together. Once the limiting reactant is completely consumed, the reaction would cease to progress. The theoretic yield of a reaction is the amount of products produced when the limiting reactant runs out. This worked example chemistry problem shows how to determine the limiting reactant and calculate the theoretical yield of a chemical reaction. Limiting Reactant and Theoretical Yield Problem You are given the following reaction: 2 H2(g) O2(g) → 2 H2O(l) Calculate: a. the stoichiometric ratio of moles H2 to moles O2b. the actual moles H2 to moles O2 when 1.50 mol H2 is mixed with 1.00 mol O2c. the limiting reactant (H2 or O2) for the mixture in part (b)d. the theoretical yield, in moles, of H2O for the mixture in part (b) Solution a. The stoichiometric ratio is given by using the coefficients of the balanced equation. The coefficients are the numbers listed before each formula. This equation is already balanced, so refer to the tutorial on balancing equations if you need further help: 2 mol H2 / mol O2 b. The actual ratio refers to the number of moles actually provided for the reaction. This may or may not be the same as the stoichiometric ratio. In this case, it is different: 1.50 mol H2 / 1.00 mol O2 1.50 mol H2 / mol O2 c. Note that the actual ratio of smaller than the required or stoichiometric ratio, which means there is insufficient H2 to react with all of the O2 that has been provided. The insufficient component (H2) is the limiting reactant. Another way to put it is to say that O2 is in excess. When the reaction has proceeded to completion, all of the H2 will have been consumed, leaving some O2 and the product, H2O. d. Theoretical yield is based on the calculation using the amount of limiting reactant, 1.50 mol H2. Given that 2 mol H2 forms 2 mol H2O, we get: theoretical yield H2O 1.50 mol H2 x 2 mol H2O / 2 mol H2 theoretical yield H2O 1.50 mol H2O Note that the only requirement for performing this calculation is knowing the amount of the limiting reactant and the ratio of the amount of limiting reactant to the amount of product. Answers a. 2 mol H2 / mol O2b. 1.50 mol H2 / mol O2c. H2d. 1.50 mol H2O Tips for Working This Type of Problem The most important point to remember is that you are dealing with the molar ratio between the reactants and products. If you are given a value in grams, you need to convert it to moles. If youre asked to supply a number in grams, you convert back from the moles used in the calculation.The limiting reactant isnt automatically the one with the smallest number of moles. For example, say you have 1.0 moles of hydrogen and 0.9 moles of oxygen in the reaction to make water. If you didnt look at the stoichiometric ratio between the reactants, you might choose oxygen as the limiting reactant, yet hydrogen and oxygen react in a 2:1 ratio, so youd actually expend the hydrogen much sooner than youd use up the oxygen.When youre asked to give quantities, watch the number of significant figures. They always matter in chemistry!

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Environmental Sustainability And Ethics Into The Business...

As a manager of a fine dining restaurant in an inner city suburb, I notice that there is an increase in the number of people enquiring about food items featured on the menu. Some are vegetarian; some ask where and how the food is produced, whilst others are celiac or show a high level of concern over the ingredients used in each dish, due to allergies. As a result, there will be a growing trend towards consuming foods based on informed choice. On the other hand, there are also some concerns about the ethics of eating and the provenance of food used on the menu. Hence, I decide that incorporating principles of informed choice and ethics into the business could be a good way to respond to these emerging trends and promote the business as being sustainable, environmentally concerned and ethically responsible. 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Global Capitalism And Its Impact On The United States

It is not just the arbitrary concepts of capitalism which have a tendency to expand, under the Marxist understanding of the state, capitalist states will make foreign policy decisions for the benefit of global capitalism. The increased intervention by western states in the Marxist view is about the sole purpose of the expansion of capitalism in the search of profit for the companies, using the state as a mobiliser for action towards such an end. Mark Rupert brought forward a case study of such â€Å"imperialism† in action, in the case of the US. Global capitalist activities require huge amounts of energy, and the cheapest or most efficient form is petroleum. Despite not being a democracy and not practising equality, or respecting human rights, all core values to the US, Saudi Arabia remains one of the US’s closest allies. 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From the Cold War to present-day the United States has become a capitalist society, but in its wake left many Americans struggling for the American dream and even brought war to parts of the world. American capitalism took hold in the United States after the Second World War and this capitalism shaped the views and dreams of the

Lesson Plan †Pop Art Free Essays

LESSON PLAN for 8F: Pop Art – Roy Lichtenstein P45| CLASS: 8F| DATE: 07/06/12| LEARNING OBJECTIVE/S: * To create a piece of pop art in the style of Roy Lichtenstein. * To be able to understand what pop art is and recall information about Roy Lichtenstein. * To be able to make positive comments on your own and others work to boost confidence and self-esteem. We will write a custom essay sample on Lesson Plan – Pop Art or any similar topic only for you Order Now EXTENSION TASK: Begin to create your own piece of Pop Art representing something you enjoy or a person you idolise. Success Criteria: * Students will be able to show a basic attempt at producing a piece of work with some similarity to the original (Level 4) * Students will be able to show a satisfactory attempt at the task with good similarity to the original and appropriate choice of colour and technique (Level 5) * Students will show a strong attempt at the task with strong similarity and technique. A personal touch may be applied to the end product to improve it’s appearance. Level 6)| RESOURCES REQUIRED * PowerPoint on Roy Lichtenstein and his Pop Art (True or false quiz for starter) * White boards, pens, board rubbers * Working SmartBoard and remote * 3 sets of colour images of Roy Lichtenstein’s work for reference * Pre-outlined images on cartridge paper plus photocopies for other students. * Plain cartridge paper * Pencils, felt tips, rubbers, scissors (+2 left handed pairs for AB and JC) * Coloured paper| LESSON OUTLINE:| Structure| Groupings| Activities| Starter(10 – 15 mins)Introduction(5 mins)Main(first part)2nd partBreak(2 period lesson)1st part(5 mins)MainPlenary (20 mins at end of lesson)| Whole ClassWhole ClassIndividual workWhole ClassWhole classIndividual workingWhole class| True or false fact quiz on Roy Lichtenstein and Pop Art. Ask students to write their answer on their whiteboard and hold up in the air when prompted to compare with each other. Ask students to recall a fact for a merit. When starter completed ask LSA to collect equipment to avoid distraction during explanation of main task. Put pictures of Roy Lichtenstein’s work up on the board and ask students to tell me what is different about these pieces (composed of dots and lines). What do they like about them? What don’t they like? Discuss as a group. Show students example piece (created by me) to show what their end product may look like. Explain equipment used and techniques, varying ways to approach and variants in colour. Refer back to work on Andy Warhol and how the use of colour is reflective in the overall product. Offer outlines to students but discuss how to approach completing task from scratch also. Remind students to refer to colour copies for inspiration Answer any questions, begin task. Circulate the room, ask LSA to do this also so that any questions can be answered. Focus on SB and AB to ensure they are feeling confident and are aware of what they need to do. Monitor approaches and understanding by allowing students to discuss ideas. Line all students up and allow time for quick toilet break Ask students if they have any questions regarding the task and remind them to ask if they need anything. Continue to circulate, spending extra time with SB and AB to ensure focus. Check on BE, CA and SS to make sure they are remaining focussed on the task. If any students are near completion, explain extension task. Bring focus back to front of the class by asking students to come up in twos and place their art work on the board in an exhibition for reviewing. Once all pieces up, ask the class to walk around and decide one thing they like about someone else’s work on the board. Once seated, ask each student to share their compliment with the rest of the class. Ask students if they can recall a fact from our earlier PowerPoint and finish by asking for a thumbs up/middle/down approach to the task they completed today. | ASSESSMENT/DIFFERENTIATION:Where does diff. occur? What learning, and whom, will be assessed? Differentiation will take place in a number of ways throughout the lesson: * Teacher and TA interaction with pupils – helping those who are finding the work difficult, asking extension questions to more able pupils. * Teacher to take in to account some short term memory issues within the group and allow time to recall facts with hints where needed. Pre-drawn outlines for all students to access if they feel unable to complete a piece from scratch which several members will. Assessment will take place informally with the teacher noting how well the students can complete the task, and more formally through peer and self assessment. | Strategies to ensure effective learning takes place: * Ensure all students are aware of and under stand the task in hand by asking the class on a whole and then walking around the room (LSA also) once the task is set to answer any questions one on one. Make sure students have correct equipment available for the task. * Refer back to the facts learned at the beginning of the lesson by offering merits as reward for recollection of facts. * Allow time at the end of the lesson to see how students felt overall about the task. * Tackle any behavioural issues if they occur without disruption to the rest of the class. * Discuss the new technique with students and how they are finding it. | How to cite Lesson Plan – Pop Art, Papers

Accounting for Managers IAS 36–Impairment

Question: Describe about the Accounting for Managers for IAS 36Impairment. Answer: 1: Existing sales Particulars Note Details Current Sales Existing Sales (A) Units Per annum 20,000 Estimated Sales (B) Units Beginning 3 months 6,000 Estimated Sales (C) Units Remaining Period 14,000 Sales per/unit (D) $ Beginning 3 months 130 Sales per/unit (E) $ Remaining Period 130 Variable manufacturing cost per/unit (F) $ Provided 50 Variable selling and administrative cost per/unit (G) $ Provided 30 Total sales (G) $ [(B) x (D) + (C) x (E)] 2600000 Total variable manufacturing cost (H) $ [(A) x (F)] 1000000 Total selling and administrative cost (I) $ [(A) x (G)] 600000 Contribution (J) $ [(G) - (H) - (I)] 1000000 Fixed manufacturing cost (K) $ Provided 4,00,000 Fixed selling and administrative cost/unit (L) $ Provided 3,00,000 Advertising and promotion cost (M) $ Provided 0 Profit $ [(J) - (K)- (L) - (M)] 3,00,000 As per Rossi Proposal Particulars Note Details Rossi Proposal Existing Sales (A) Units Per annum 20,000 Estimated Sales (B) Units Beginning 3 months 6,000 Estimated Sales (C) Units Remaining Period 14,000 Sales per/unit (D) ($) Beginning 3 months 140 Sales per/unit (E) Remaining Period 140 Variable manufacturing cost per/unit (F) Provided 50 Variable selling and administrative cost per/unit (G) Provided 30 Total sales (G) [(B) x (D) + (C) x (E)] 2800000 Total variable manufacturing cost (H) [(A) x (F)] 1000000 Total selling and administrative cost (I) [(A) x (G)] 600000 Contribution (J) [(G) - (H) - (I)] 1200000 Fixed manufacturing cost (K) Provided 4,00,000 Fixed selling and administrative cost/unit (L) Provided 3,00,000 Advertising and promotion cost (M) Provided 1,25,000 Profit [(J) - (K)- (L) - (M)] 3,75,000 In consideration to the above calculation it should be noted that if 20,000 units are produced and the variable cost standing derived from the manufacturing and selling overhead is $12,00,000. According to the Rossis proposal of increasing the price by $10 would ultimately, lead to higher sales is entirely dependent upon the administrative expenses. However, the advertising and sales promotion cost of 125,000 would ultimately lead to fall in the profitability. Advertising and promotion is considered as the additional marketing cost, which either can attract new customers or might affect the estimated net profitability. As per Tom Tune Proposal Particulars Note Details Tom Proposal Existing Sales (A) Units Per annum 25000 Estimated Sales (B) Units Beginning 3 months 6,000 Estimated Sales (C) Units Remaining Period 19,000 Sales per/unit (D) $ Beginning 3 months 130 Sales per/unit (E) $ Remaining Period 130 Variable manufacturing cost per/unit (F) $ Provided 55 Variable selling and administrative cost per/unit (G) $ Provided 30 Total sales (G) $ [(B) x (D) + (C) x (E)] 3250000 Total variable manufacturing cost (H) $ [(A) x (F)] 1375000 Total selling and administrative cost (I) $ [(A) x (G)] 750000 Contribution (J) $ [(G) - (H) - (I)] 1125000 Fixed manufacturing cost (K) $ Provided 4,00,000 Fixed selling and administrative cost/unit (L) $ Provided 3,00,000 Advertising and promotion cost (M) $ Provided 50,000 Profit $ [(J) - (K)- (L) - (M)] 3,75,000 According to the proposal proposed by Tom, he predicts an estimated sales of 25,000 units with overall variable manufacturing cost of $11,25,000. Tom proposal includes an advertising and promotional cost of $50,000 however, there does not exists any considerable amount of change in profit. The contribution margin is lower than the Rossis proposal however, lower advertising and sales promotion cost is beneficial for the proposed strategy as there is lower risk of failure out of loss. As per Mary Watson Proposal Particulars Note Details Mary Proposal Existing Sales (A) Units Per annum 24000 Estimated Sales (B) Units Beginning 3 months 10,000 Estimated Sales (C) Units Remaining Period 14,000 Sales per/unit (D) $ Beginning 3 months 120 Sales per/unit (E) $ Remaining Period 130 Variable manufacturing cost per/unit (F) $ Provided 50 Variable selling and administrative cost per/unit (G) $ Provided 30 Total sales (G) $ [(B) x (D) + (C) x (E)] 3020000 Total variable manufacturing cost (H) $ [(A) x (F)] 1200000 Total selling and administrative cost (I) $ [(A) x (G)] 720000 Contribution (J) $ [(G) - (H) - (I)] 1100000 Fixed manufacturing cost (K) $ Provided 4,00,000 Fixed selling and administrative cost/unit (L) $ Provided 3,00,000 Advertising and promotion cost (M) $ Provided 40,000 Profit $ [(J) - (K)- (L) - (M)] 3,60,000 Mary on the other hand would propose to undertake the promotion campaign where a rebate of $10 will be offered on all kinds of drills sold during. She further proposes a lower advertising and promotion cost of $40,000. She proposes estimated sales of 24,000 units per annum but undertaking the proposal it has been found that the net profit has fallen to $360,000 and such proposal does not seem to be profitable. To comment further on the three proposals offered it should be understood that the best-suited proposal is of Tom, which as the advertising cost is lower with net profit of 375,000. According to the proposal made by Tom, increasing the sales volume by 25% would be ideal for the business. 2: Activity Level Price Per Unit ($) 1,50,000 2,00,000 1,80,000 Direct Material 2.50 375000 500000 450000 Direct Labour 3.00 450000 600000 540000 Direct variable expenses 5.50 825000 1100000 990000 Variable Overhead: Variable Factory Overhead 1.50 225000 300000 270000 Variable selling and administrative cost 2.00 300000 400000 360000 Total cost or production 3.50 525000 700000 630000 Fixed Overhead: Fixed factory overhead 2.00 300000 400000 360000 Fixed selling and administrative cost 1.50 225000 300000 270000 Fixed Cost 3.50 525000 700000 630000 20% Mark Up 2.50 375000 500000 450000 Selling price 15.00 2250000 3000000 2700000 Additional bid by Tassie Company Particulars Details Price (in $) Total price for 40,000 units (A) (30,000 x 8.4) + (10,000 x 10.9) 361000 Average price for 40,000 units (A)/40,000 9.03 Cost such as salaries and depreciation can be included in the assets side of the balance sheet. It is worth mentioning that if a business firm operates on the accrual basis pay off its expenses prior to which it is incurred originally it can be shown in the form of assets under the asset side of the balance sheet for Prepaid Salaries or Prepaid Depreciation (Andersson and Wenzel 2014). As the expenditure are incurred once it is shifted to the profit and loss account in the form of expenditure. It is noticed in the majority of the business that the rate of depreciation creates an impact on the level of profitability and the amount of tax, which a business is willing to pay in one financial year. Depreciation is tax deducted expenditure with higher incidence of depreciation a business can reduce the tax bill in any financial year. Particulars Note Details Amount ($) Indirect/Overhead cost (A) $ Provided 98,400 Direct labour hours (B) Hours Provided 25,795 Overhead allocation rate $ (A)/(B) 3.81 Particulars Note Details Amount ($) Direct cost of material (A) $ (2,100 x 16.1) 33810 Direct cost of labour (B) $ (327,600/25,795) x 1400 17780.19 Indirect/overhead cost (C) S (1,400 x 3.81) 5334 Total cost of the special order S (A) + (B) + (C) 56924.19 Particulars Note Details Amount ($) Overhead cost (A) $ Provided 98,400 Machine hours (B) Hours Provided 9,840 Overhead allocation rate $ (A)/(B) 10 Particulars Note Details Amount ($) Direct cost of material (A) $ (2,100 x 16.1) 33810 Direct cost of labour (B) $ (327,600/25,795) x 1400 17780.19 Indirect/overhead cost (C) S (525 x 10) 5250 Total cost $ (A) + (B) + (C) 56840.19 Particulars Details Minimum price/trailer (in $) Labour hour rate 56,924.19/350 162.64 Machine hour rate 56,840.19/350 162.40 Activity based costing is referred as a costing methodology which helps in recognising the activities of an organisation by allocating the cost of each activity with the resources of the all the products and goods produced in accordance with the actual cost of production. On the other hand, the choice of an allocation method is entirely depended upon the group of overhead cost for a desired accuracy of the product cost information (Kaplan and Atkinson 2015). Such method when employed by a business entity can easily evaluate the cost of elements of entire product activities and services. Implementing the segmented cost of overhead pools and activity based costing can assist a business firm to identify the accurate cost of pricing a product and eliminate the product and service which are not profitable. Such pricing methods help a business organisation to reduce the production of goods and services, which are ineffective, and this will help in yielding a better production (Horngren et al. 2013). Such methods help a business to organise resources through which an activity pricing of each activity can be determined in terms of the resources employed. Thus such tool enables a business unit to understand the product and cost profitability on the basis of the production and performance. Reference list: Andersson, S. and Wenzel, F., 2014. Application of IAS 36Impairment of fixed assets-A qualitative study about the main challenges for companies regarding impairments. Balakrishnan, R., Labro, E. and Soderstrom, N.S., 2014. Cost structure and sticky costs.Journal of Management Accounting Research,26(2), pp.91-116. Carlsson, B., Meir, M., Rekstad, J., Prei, D. and Ramschak, T., 2016. Replacing traditional materials with polymeric materials in solar thermosiphon systemsCase study on pros and cons based on a total cost accounting approach.Solar Energy,125, pp.294-306. Deegan, C., 2013.Financial accounting theory. McGraw-Hill Education Australia. Domeika, P., 2015. Creation of the Information System of Enterprise Fixed Asset Accounting.Engineering Economics,60(5). DRURY, C.M., 2013.Management and cost accounting. Springer. Horngren, C.T., Sundem, G.L., Schatzberg, J.O. and Burgstahler, D., 2013.Introduction to management accounting. Pearson Higher Ed. Kamala, P., Struwig, J., Bornman, M., Boersman, R., Vermaak, M., McGill, M., Jordaan-Marais, J., Matthew, J., Hurter, C. and Taylor, P., 2015.Principles of Cost Accounting. Oxford University Press. Kaplan, R.S. and Atkinson, A.A., 2015.Advanced management accounting. PHI Learning. Kumbhakar, S., Lozano-Vivas, A. and Sun, K., 2013. A flexible cost function model with risk. Rieckhof, R., Bergmann, A. and Guenther, E., 2014. Interrelating material flow cost accounting with management control systems to introduce resource efficiency into strategy.Journal of Cleaner Production,30, p.1e17. Schmidt, A., Gtze, U. and Sygulla, R., 2015. Extending the scope of Material Flow Cost Accountingmethodical refinements and use case.Journal of Cleaner Production,108, pp.1320-1332.

Sunday, April 26, 2020

William Cuthbert Faulkner Essay Example For Students

William Cuthbert Faulkner Essay William Cuthbert FaulknerA preeminent figure in twentieth-century American literature, Faulkner created a profound and complex body of work in which he often explored exploitation and corruption in the American South. William Faulkners writing most commonly set in Yoknapatawpha County, a fictional area based on his homeland of Mississippi. Explore the history of the South while making thorough observations of Human Character. The purpose of Faulkners writing style is to demonstrate a heart in conflict with itself. He did this using a plethora of narrative viewpoints to enrich the struggle. (Galenet, Introduction)William Faulkners writings are all written with an extremely unique style. The exuberant and tropical luxuriance of sound which Jim Europe’s jazz band used to exhale, like a jungle of rank creepers and ferocious blooms taking shape before one’s eyes–magnificently and endlessly intervolved, glisteningly and ophidianly in motion, coil sliding over coil, and leaf and flower forever magically interchanging–was scarcely more bewildering, in its sheer inexhaustible fecundity, than Mr. Faulkner’s style. One of the unusual points of Faulkners writings is his obsession and repetition of certain uncommon words. Words like sonorous, latin, vaguely eloquent, myriad, sourceless, impalpable, outrageous, risible, and profound. Faulkner was able to compensate for the over use of these words by using an over elaborate sentence structure. His sentences often included clause after clause or parenthesis after parenthesis as if he had just decided to tell us every thing he possibly could. They remind one of those brightly colored Chinese eggs of one’s childhood, which when opened disclosed egg after egg, each smaller and subtler than the last. It is often that by the end of the sentence one doesnt know what the subject of the verb is and after going back and rereading everything you find that the subject has very little bearing at a ll. However despite these few annoying writing habits in the end it keeps the reader involved and looking to the next sentence for meaning, until he drops in the final sentence, which brings everything together and unites them. (Conrad Aiken, 200)You would be very much forsaken if you said that Faulkners style lies in his grammar alone. He is instead much more known for writing from several points of view. By narration through the mentally deficient, psychologically disturbed, and the romantic idealist Faulkner is able to display events in new and previously unheard of ways. Faulkner never abandoned the advantages of the omniscient author but tried various limitations of omniscience, always with the purpose of getting inside a character and involving the reader as fully as possible. (Elizabeth M. Kerr, 264) Another unique thing about Faulkners point of view writings is that he often make no clear attempt to tell the reader what really happened, instead you are forced to see the even ts through the unusual eyes of several on lookers. The reader is forced to go along and see as each person sees and adjust the truth to their point o view. If you are lucky enough one of the narrators will resemble not only your lifestyle, but also personal opinions. If so you are forced to take a look and examine how you think through certain events. In many of his books he takes you on journey much resembling a circle. You are forced to run around the outside trying to look in on one central event. With every step you view the event from a different time or viewpoint. This gives you by the time the novel is finished an all encompassing view of a central event, yet leaves with no absolute truth about anything. It offers you events and truths from each view that get disproved time and time again by the offering of other events and truths. The final result being that you must read intently until every last bit of information has been given to you in order to form the perfect image of the event in your mind. (Conrad Aiken, 205)Faulkner loved his hometown and people and did not want to offend them by writing out right about the gossipy and close minded way in which they viewed events. To escape doing this Faulkner often put a romantic or gothic tone to his writing to make protect his people. The important thing to remember about his novels is despite their apparent genius and often romantic viewpoints the events at which they centered around were primarily gothic. Many times in his writings Faulkner produced images that can be compared to Gothic castles such as the Sartoris plantation house in Sartoris and Sanctuary; the ruins of the Old Frenchman’s place in Sanctuary and The Hamlet; the Compson house, in a state of dilapidation, in Absalom, Absalom! and The Sound and the Fury; Sutpen’s Hundred in Absalom, Absalom! from creation to destruction; Miss Burden’s house in Light in August; the McCaslin plantation, still a going concern, in Go Down, Moses and Intruder in the Dust; the Backus plantation in decline in The Town and as transformed by Mr. Harriss in â€Å"Knight’s Gambit† and The Mansion; the old De Spain mansion as transformed by Flem in The Town and The Mansion. All of these are castles in state of decline. They also are frequently equipped with slave or servant quarters. Only the novel Intruder in the Dust lacks a castle instead it has a middle-class home where a family lives happily. There are also in his books the classic gothic character types in just about every novel. The Romantic, Byronic, or Faustian heroes, the courtly lovers, the tragic villain-heroes, the revenge villain-hero, the rational villains, and the villain seducer seem to take the key roles in Faulkners tales. Let us not forget about the grotesque. A huge part in all gothic novels is the commonly disfigured characters. Faulkner did not use his grotesque in an evil manner like most gothic writers. Instead he used them to evoke pit y and sympathy. Faulkner was much more than just a gothic writer. By never telling his gothic stories in first person or form the heroes point of view he was able to disassociate himself from common gothic writers. (Elizibeth M. Kerr, 264)When discussing Faulkners writing style no conversation is complete with out a lot of time spent on Faulkners use of time in his works. One may describe Faulknerian time as a continuum: time flowing from past into present and from present into past. One of things made apparent in Faulkners writings is that time in itself is irrelevant. The important thing is that events happen not when they happen. He has no objection at all to leaving what he is talking about to take you back to something happened much earlier and then moving past what you were talking about to what happens in the future. He is also known to skip certain events in his stories. This is used to add shock and importance to other events, which would seem unimportant or irrelevant. His use of time is so unique that it often breaks down to that fact he denies that a past exists. When he does this you are forced to concentrate on the present and go by moment by moment with him. As the story moves you become aware of the past slowly. It is not unusual for him to lead you to thinking one way and then he as if on a side not dictates you a small part of history which discounts everything and changes the whole story. So Unique is his use of time that it not only is defied in the novel itself, but in the series of novels. The novels written about Yoknapatawpha County are not written in chronological order like one would expect when reading a series. Instead the novels are an intricate web of different times bound together only by the setting. Several of the novels take place at exactly the same time, but the events are viewed in a different manner, which in turn brings new light and interest worthy of duplicating. This is extremely obvious when you compare Absalom, Absal om! to The Sound and the Fury the novels themselves both tell the same story. In spite of this both books manage to stand apart from each other. The key isnt that the events are the same, but rather the viewpoints arent. This use of time is one of the main reasons that Faulkner was considered a genius in his own time. (Frederick J. Hoffman, 17)Faulkner writings brought about a lot of characters. It was most likely Faulkners opinion that he could represent every kind of person using the concentrated population of Mississippi. In his short stories he presents just about every imaginable combination from Indians who owned slaves to 49ers who were unsuccessful and were forced back to move back to the South. Faulkner uses his characters in a variety of ways, but most commonly he pelted them with steady moral judgment. One of the best examples of this is in the short story A Rose for Emily in which an old maid falls in love with a Northerner. The old maid kills her lover and keeps his bod y upstairs in her bedroom. This is not discovered however until after the old maid dies and they are able to get inside the house. Despite this rather gruesome image the focus of the story is not concentrated on it at all, instead the point of the novel is on the old maid and what she thought about how much the world was changing. Or in the short story The Evening Sun the story is concentrated on a Negro woman who is impregnated by another man and lives with the terror of it every day. The narration is done through a small boys point of view this gives you an innocent but honest look at her life and the terror she must endure. These are just examples of how Faulkner is able to throw you in to not only situations but into people as well. The result is an extremely unique look at a large portion of the Southern lifestyle. The key o understanding Faulkners characters is not by looking at their actions, but to pay attention to how they are presented by the narrators. If they are a narra tor, let yourself delve into their mind to try to understand why they think the way they the do. (Alfred Kazin, 154)In closing, Faulkner writing style is in essence his writing. The events that take place in Faulkner novels are often, no matter how big they might seem, unimportant. The crucial part of his writing is that you are thrust in to whole new ways of looking at things. You are forced to give in and look at things through not so rose-colored glasses. In essence he manipulates your whole way of thinking and makes you think like any given character he wants you to. 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